Ultra-wideband (UWB) uses radio waves over a wide frequency bandwidth for short-range applications, with the term wideband being directly related to the 6-9GHz range of the spectrum. UWB is a direct connection between two devices that consists of radio wave bursts being transmitted and received; the amount and time it takes for these pulses to travel between the devices is then translated into data.
UWB can achieve accurate distance measurements in real-time without interfering with conventional narrowband and carrier wave transmissions in the same frequency bands. It is also resistant to noise and reflection, making it secure and suitable for a range of applications.
Other wireless communications that use radio waves like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi are less accurate than UWB as they determine distance by signal strength and arrival. For UWB to function effectively it requires antennas with small ground planes, which enables compact designs and applications.